SKIN AND COSMETICS: HAIR CONDITIONERS

The best conditioner for the hair is natural sebum or oil that is present on the scalp. The main purpose of conditioners is to apply the ‘sebum’ where it is needed, which is generally at the ends of the hair rather than at the roots. Conditioners also make the hair smooth and shiny, and decrease the electrical charge that tends to make it frizzy. Some conditioners also contain protein which penetrates into damaged hair and temporarily mends the damaged surface.Chemical processing causes significant damage to the hair’s outer coat, which is called the cuticle. The cuticle is what makes the hair smooth and shiny, and stops frizziness. Once the hair has been permed, dyed or even excessively blow dried, the cuticle is destroyed, and split ends occur. A good conditioner will cover each hair with a film which replaces the function of the cuticle. If conditioners are not used often enough, the hair tends to become dull and frizzy. On the other hand, if they are overused, the hair becomes greasy and limp.Chemically-processed hair will benefit from a conditioner which contains protein. This will penetrate the hair shafts, protecting them until the next wash. Conditioners which you leave on your hair can also be used to make the hair less frizzy and shinier. They can also temporarily mend split ends.Conditioning treatments, which are left on the hair for a prolonged period, usually about twenty minutes, penetrate the damaged cuticles better and often make the hair appear healthier. These can be used once a week as a ‘treatment’.
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COSMETIC SURGERY FOR AGEING SKIN: FACE-LIFTING

Attractiveness is considered a great asset in our society. As a result, there has been a surge in the demand for cosmetic surgery. This is most obvious in the United States, but the demand is also growing here in Australia. Cosmetic surgery is now sought by people from all walks of life, not just television personalities and film stars.There have been many advances in the field of cosmetic surgery, both in surgical techniques and anesthesia. Many cosmetic procedures are now performed under twilight anesthetic in day procedure centers, so that hospitalization is not necessary. This also means that cosmetic surgery can be done less expensively, and that people can resume normal activities within a short time. Improvements in the area are continuing into the 1990s, particularly with the advent of laser surgery.
Face-liftingFace-lifting is the best known of all cosmetic procedures. Here both the skin and the underlying supporting tissues are pulled up against gravity and re-attached to the upper part of the cheek bone. Face-lifting lasts about ten years and is most suitable for sagging facial and neck skin. It is less effective for fine wrinkles and does not improve the textural changes that occur due to sun damage, that is, photoageing. Many people are disappointed with the results of face-lifting, because they have unrealistic expectations of what it can achieve.Major advances have occurred in this field, especially over the last decade. In the past, many facelifts looked rather unnatural and often produced unsightly scars as well as swelling and bruising. People often needed to take two weeks off work and hide from curious friends and neighbors. The older method of face-lifting relied on pulling the skin very tight under excessive tension. This distorted the facial features and did not last very long.A breakthrough occurred in the 1970s when surgeons took into account the fact that the facial skin is supported by an underlying structure called the SMAS. This membrane surrounds and supports the delicate facial muscles. By pulling up the SMAS against gravity, and attaching it to the top of the cheeks, facelifts became more natural looking and longer-lasting. Lasers, for example KTP lasers, are now used in face-lifting, causing almost no bruising or bleeding.Another major improvement in facelift surgery occurred in the field of anesthesia. Facelifts are now routinely performed under twilight anesthetic as a day patient procedure. This lighter anesthetic has minimal health risks, so that facelifts can be done more safely with much quicker recovery. In the United States, people can now return to work within four or five days with no obvious signs of recent surgery.Complications can occur with face-lifting, although major problems are rare. It is common to see swelling and bruising, and scars are often visible behind the ears at the hairline. Scars in front of the ears are usually virtually imperceptible.Anyone contemplating a facelift must remember that the procedure only lifts the skin up against gravity. It will not improve the skin’s texture and will certainly not remove wrinkles around the mouth. To do this, a chemical peel or dermabrasion is necessary.
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GLOSSARY: RETINOL AND ACID

Retinol
Years after retinoids (in the form of Retin-A] hit the market, the mad scientists at many beauty companies started tinkering with a version for ‘over-the-counter’ usage. The result was retinol, a close relation to tretinoin that must first be converted to retinaldehyde and then to all-trans retinoic acid in the skin. Like its distant relatives, retinol is said to simulate collagen, unclog pores, promote a rosy glow and help with acne and rosacea. Even more so than with tretinoin, retinol
can sometimes be highly irritating to the skin.
Acid
The word “acid- might alarm some people, but be assured that these naturally occurring acids are unbeatable at accelerating the cell renewal process. Meet the family:
Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA) – glycolic (sugarcane); malic (apples); tartaric (grapes); lactic (sour milk); citric (citrus fruits). Ideal tor removing surface dead skin cells.
Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA) – salicylic acid, the lone BHA. is found naturally in willow bark, sweet birch bark and wintergreen leaves. It is a fat-soluble acid, allowing it to penetrate into the pores. Poly Hydroxy Acid (PHA) – a newer, less irritating acid, that is easily tolerated by most complexions.
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GLOSSARY: RETINOL AND ACIDRetinolYears after retinoids (in the form of Retin-A] hit the market, the mad scientists at many beauty companies started tinkering with a version for ‘over-the-counter’ usage. The result was retinol, a close relation to tretinoin that must first be converted to retinaldehyde and then to all-trans retinoic acid in the skin. Like its distant relatives, retinol is said to simulate collagen, unclog pores, promote a rosy glow and help with acne and rosacea. Even more so than with tretinoin, retinolcan sometimes be highly irritating to the skin.AcidThe word “acid- might alarm some people, but be assured that these naturally occurring acids are unbeatable at accelerating the cell renewal process. Meet the family:Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA) – glycolic (sugarcane); malic (apples); tartaric (grapes); lactic (sour milk); citric (citrus fruits). Ideal tor removing surface dead skin cells.Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA) – salicylic acid, the lone BHA. is found naturally in willow bark, sweet birch bark and wintergreen leaves. It is a fat-soluble acid, allowing it to penetrate into the pores. Poly Hydroxy Acid (PHA) – a newer, less irritating acid, that is easily tolerated by most complexions.*41\82\8*