GOALS OF MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY FOR TYPE II DIABETES

Blood glucose and lipid goals join weight loss to a reasonable weight as the focus of therapy for overweight patients with diabetes. This recognizes the fact that modification for fat intake, spacing and size of meals, exercise, and reasonable weight loss can be effective in achieving blood glucose and lipid goals in patients with type II diabetes.
The primary goal for patients with type II diabetes should be to achieve and maintain near normal blood glucose levels. Making healthy food choices, especially modifying calorie intake, can be beneficial. A moderate caloric modification (250-500 calories less than the average daily intake) and increase in physical activity may lead to improved weight control. In addition, modifying fat intake may be associated with a reduction in energy intake and weight loss. A nutritionally adequate meal plan with a modification in fat, especially saturated fat, should be implemented. Research has shown that even a weight loss of 5% to 10% is sufficient for improving glycemic control. Weight loss appears to increase insulin sensitivity and normalizes hepatic glucose production.
The research on the efficacy of very low-calorie diets (VLCDs) is inconclusive. Both VLCDs and low-calorie meal plans lead to weight loss and weight regain. VLCDs may be slightly beneficial to patients with type II diabetes because caloric restriction has been shown to improve insulin resistance and blood glucose response. It is unclear, however, if this makes a difference over an extended period of time. More studies need to be conducted investigating other creative alternatives to VLCDs, such as intermittent fasting which may achieve improved insulin resistance without the varying effects of weight loss and regain.
Due to the impaired insulin secretion in patients with type II diabetes, smaller meals and snacks spaced more frequently throughout the day may prevent exaggerated post-meal hyperglycemia. Also, regular exercise can promote improved metabolic control and weight management. In addition, learning new behaviors and attitudes can promote long-term lifestyle changes.
Monitoring blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipids and blood pressure is essential to evaluate nutrition-related strategies. If metabolic parameters do not improve, oral glucose-lowering medication, insulin, or lipid-lowering or antihypertensive drugs may be required. Other than the quantity of food, we need to change the quality to make it more balanced.
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GOALS OF MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY FOR TYPE II DIABETESBlood glucose and lipid goals join weight loss to a reasonable weight as the focus of therapy for overweight patients with diabetes. This recognizes the fact that modification for fat intake, spacing and size of meals, exercise, and reasonable weight loss can be effective in achieving blood glucose and lipid goals in patients with type II diabetes.The primary goal for patients with type II diabetes should be to achieve and maintain near normal blood glucose levels. Making healthy food choices, especially modifying calorie intake, can be beneficial. A moderate caloric modification (250-500 calories less than the average daily intake) and increase in physical activity may lead to improved weight control. In addition, modifying fat intake may be associated with a reduction in energy intake and weight loss. A nutritionally adequate meal plan with a modification in fat, especially saturated fat, should be implemented. Research has shown that even a weight loss of 5% to 10% is sufficient for improving glycemic control. Weight loss appears to increase insulin sensitivity and normalizes hepatic glucose production.The research on the efficacy of very low-calorie diets (VLCDs) is inconclusive. Both VLCDs and low-calorie meal plans lead to weight loss and weight regain. VLCDs may be slightly beneficial to patients with type II diabetes because caloric restriction has been shown to improve insulin resistance and blood glucose response. It is unclear, however, if this makes a difference over an extended period of time. More studies need to be conducted investigating other creative alternatives to VLCDs, such as intermittent fasting which may achieve improved insulin resistance without the varying effects of weight loss and regain.Due to the impaired insulin secretion in patients with type II diabetes, smaller meals and snacks spaced more frequently throughout the day may prevent exaggerated post-meal hyperglycemia. Also, regular exercise can promote improved metabolic control and weight management. In addition, learning new behaviors and attitudes can promote long-term lifestyle changes.Monitoring blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipids and blood pressure is essential to evaluate nutrition-related strategies. If metabolic parameters do not improve, oral glucose-lowering medication, insulin, or lipid-lowering or antihypertensive drugs may be required. Other than the quantity of food, we need to change the quality to make it more balanced.*4/356/5*

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